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Demonstrating Chemical Properties

Question: How do chemical changes affect matter?
Hypothesis: Chemical properties will create color change, odor, light and heat production, bubbles, and gas.

Independent Variable: Materials tested


Purple Cabbage
Vinegar & Baking Soda
Glow Stick

Match
Coin & Candle
Lauren
Andrew
Jen

Matt & Andrew
Lauren & Jen
Variable: The chemical properties that are created during chemical changes.
Constants: Purple Cabbage: the amount of liquids tested, the amount of cabbage juice per flask. Glowstick: How many times the glowstick is cracked. Vinegar and Baking Soda: The amount of vinegar and baking soda used, the amount of popcorn kernels, the amount of water used. Coin & Candle: The time the penny is held in the flame.

Andrew:

Gas Production:

Materials: 30 mL baking soda, 60 mL vinegar, 100 mL water, cup, popcorn kernels. Mix the vinegar and water together in the cup and add the baking soda. Immediately add 5 popcorn kernels. Observe what happens for the next five minutes.
http://mypage.direct.ca/k/kasmith/gina/page4.html

Question: What will happen when the vinegar and baking soda mix? What will happen to the popcorn cornels?
Hypothesis: When mixed, the vinegar and baking soda will produce gas and cause the popcorn cornels to pop.

Chemical Reaction Products: http://library.thinkquest.org/3347/vinegar+bsoda4.html

Jen:

Glow Stick:

Question: How does a glowstick produce light?
Hypothesis: A chemical change occurs in the stick and produces light through the release of a substance when you crack the stick.
What happens to create light in a glowstick? Check out the website below.
http://www.glowstickfactory.com/categories/Glow-In-The-Dark-/
When you crack the glowstick, a glass container inside breaks, and peroxide mixes with phenyl oxalate ester to produce Phenol. A dye is added to make it colorful and fun.

Lauren:

Purple Cabbage:
Question: What makes purple cabbage a Ph indicator?
Hypothesis: Depending on the Ph level of the liquid being tested with the cabbage, will determine the color of the cabbage.
Procedures:We will boil the purple cabbage and then the water will turn purple. From here we will put the purple water into different liquids and see what colors they turn.
Results:

Substance
Color
Ph



vinegar
red
acidic
sugar and water solution
purple
base
vegetable oil
different densities
unknown
perfume
blue
base
milk
purple
base
ginger ale
clear purple/ red
acidic
salt and water solution
purple
base
beef broth
purple and blue
base
methanol
purple and blue
base
lemon juice
clear red/pink
acidic
detergent
blue and purple
base
amonia
green and yellow
alkaline
Conclusion: We found that the most acidic liquids turned red, the ones that were neutral stayed the same color, and that the ones that had hardly any acidity turned green. The one with the least amount of acid was the amonia and the ones with the most were the vinegar, lemon juice, and ginger ale.

For more information, see this link: http://chemistry.about.com/od/acidsbase1/a/red-cabbage-ph-indicator.htm

Matt and Andrew:

Match:

http://chemistry.about.com/od/everydaychemistry/a/matches.htm

Jen and Lauren:

Coin & Candle:

Question: What will happen to the penny when held in flame?
Hypothesis: The penny will not burn, but melt.
Procedures: We will hold the penny in the flame of a candle with lab clamps, and observe what happens.
Results: When held in fire, the penny did not catch on fire or melt but charred a lot where the flame was.
Conclusion: The penny is unflammable.